A fallen world

Warning: This article is still in under construction.

It seems necessary to dedicate a whole section of this site to changing the conception we have about ecology, as in wild animals and wild life. So this page will mostly serve to flesh out the scientific justification behind the raw paleodiet and the theory of the evolutionary purpose of the secondary purpose of love (metasexuality), by answer the honest question:
If we are right, shouldn’t wild animals (which by definition practice our diet) show all simply no infection parasite or disease of any sort ?

The short answer is: normally, but truly undisturbed environments have become scarce and this is easy to demonstrate. This fact explains most of the contradicting studies published so far. But facts aren’t everything, interpretations make for 60% of science, if not 90% as in social science or psychology, or 100% as in evoluitonary psychology.

Today animals drop in droves in epidemics and studies prove that the parasitic load went through the roof in fish during this century. We can - and will - demonstrate that this nature, this world, is a fallen one, and does not represent what we were meant to live in before cooking or civilization.

If deers or bears die in mass (they don’t) from whatever infection how could we decently claim men shouldn’t thanks to muh raw food ? We couldn’t.
Similarily, we will deal with what people would consider as proofs that animals are cruel and vicious, in particular our cousins.

Our thesis is two-fold:

A slew of so-called experts (the likes of Richard Wrangham) endeavoured to undermine those much warranted efforts.

Their collective strategy (no conspiracy theory, this required only a common fundamental hate for nature and dishonesty) consists in two principles:

I swear I do not exaggerate in the slightest. Those people are motivated by a deap-seated disgust for nature and human-centric, egotistic supremacist feeling, with modern civilization at the top and nature far far below on the moral. This is very much the continuation of XIXth century’s moral tale of immorale nature vs civilized culture.

For a few decades science has had a remarkably progressist role on the ecological front as a public institution, furthering the idea that men’ issues were the product of history, civilization, not of its nature, and that primitive cultures were mostly devoid of our unrest, violence and many of our diseases.

We can see a gradual inversal of those consideration from the 90ies, now depicting apes not as wise ancestors living in a constant paradise (which they are, or should be) but as poor creatures bent constantly striving to survive in a dangerous place among predators pathogens and most of all… their own peers. Human violence and sadism is now increasingly explained as a genetic legacy from violent ancestors.
The problem is wild nature is becoming a distant dream as a we speak:

According to the World Wildlife Fund, more than a quarter of the Amazon rainforest will be devoid of trees by 2030 if cutting continues at the same speed. If nothing is done to stop it, an estimated 40 per cent of this unique forest will be razed by 2050.

Ecological efforts cost a lot and people overall, are unredeemable, egoistical f$cks, that need constant and hard reminding of their duties to fulfill them. Western consciences have proven easy to lull and we appear more than willing to give in to a sense of fatalism to smoothen our guilt while we buy from dictatorial governments selling their primeval forests for muh bucks and turning a blind eye to (or outright paying) organized mafias killing off rare orendangered species in the most barbaric fashion… as is the case with rhinoceroses, elephants, gorillas chimpanzees and orangutans. But nearly all of those countries I mentioned are peopled with inferior Üntermensch hence too racially simply-minded to even have a conscience, if they can even be called sentient. Not all of them though, Norway China and Japan also butcher endangered whales to death witih explosive harpoons for money.

To oppose those economic interests would require the most relentless propaganda effort to educate Western population, to:

  1. Invest billions in preservation efforts
  2. Not ally with corrupt governments
  3. Overthrow them and colonize Africa again, as well as China for the matter.

That the West, even just Europe, has the economical means to do a lot can’t be argued, but we do not want to, without a shadow of a doubt none of the above will come to pass without the political will (and popular backing) of a powerful national-naturalist regime. Sadly though… Wild nature will probably die before.

My point is:
If we cannot demonstrate that Nature is the originator of all vital balances we claim develop to their utmost point in the raw paleolithic Man, biologically and morally, then the whole intellectual edifice of instinctive paleonutrition and metapsychanalysis would totter on its base.

We saw before how low levels of pollution can induce extremely disturbing behaviors, at odds with anything we would expect from evolution. But it is probable that pollution per se, is not exactly required, and indeed might be challending to detect or argue in favor, as the cause of diseases and other incongruency with the theory of instincto.
It might apply to environments even tens of miles down a river where cities dump waste in one form or another, and obviously any animal close to human habitations will be susceptible to eating unnatural food items, digging out our shit, etc. This undoubtedly accounts for the crippling level of parasitism in commensals like foxes, boars, rabbits (dying of toxoplasmose), etc.

We characterized before how cooking influence our behavior on many levels. Conversely, we saw how natural behaviors should look from the premises of metasexuality and socio-psychological necessities.
But what if we were to extend this line of reasoning to the whole of the animal realm ? What behaviors should or should not be expected for healthy animals ?
Using on animals these critieria of health (mental and physical) we developped for humans, reveals an horrible conclusion: Not only humans, but a big part of the animal world, is suffering from the effect of cooking, low-level pollution and an unbalanced diet due to environmental destruction and reshaping by humans, sometimes for thousands of years, as long as agriculture has been a thing. This impacts as much their behavior as their health.

Going further: we’ve been eating cooked food for tens of thousands of years, constantly pouring into the environment, sea and rivers, molecules never present in such quantities in the wild except for the rare volcanic eruptions. Obviously industrialism cranked all of this up to eleven. Could it be that we never saw nature exactly as it’s meant to be (especially near human habitations) for a very, very long time since even the inception of agriculture?

Physical Health

As stated in the introduction and our new theory of the viral phenomenon, hundreds to thousands of sick people have been observed cured of their ailment in a short time, from typically a few weeks for viral diseases, to a few months in a case of DMD (Duchenne muscular dystrophy), where a pre-teen child until then locked to its wheelchair, had regenerated his muscular fibers so much that he could run around a table playing ping-pong for the first time in his life.


A major epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumonia caused the death of approximately 23% of the elephant (Loxodonta africana) population of Lake Manyara National Park in 1977 after a severe drought in 1976 which may have weakened these elephants; the normal mortality between 1966 and 1981 was 3% (Weyerhaeuser 1982).

But although on a lesser number of patients, we also observed similar happenings with animals, mainly farm animals and pets, either recovered or adopting the new diet as the same time as their master.
Like for humans, invariably an adequate wide food range ensured the swift eradication of parasitoses that no other methods (sometimes even resisting chemical treatments) could get rid of. Typically in the form of crawling neatly packed balls of living (or dead) worms, in feces, showing up in feces, most often no more than a mere few days after stopping cooking completely.

Let us start this study with one species in particular, Gorilla gorilla beringei, or mountain gorillas.

Wrong Habitat

This case study superposes with the issue of teeth decay but this deserves its own analysis. I wish to focus here on diseases instead, so as to demonstrate how the ignorance of aliesthesy and the genetic adaptation to food in a particular environment.
Those lucky gorillas have remarquably low levels of either tooth decays or diseases, despite a rate of inbreeding superior to anything we know in human population, to the point of all mountain gorillas being as closely related as half-siblings (35% homozygosity). Yet it has been proved that it didn’t seem to impact their health.
I claim that for instincto standards they still are very sick, because of a great many symptoms that demand explanations1. Overall, from the perspective of a modern conscience those mountain gorillas fare surprisingly well. Yet this amount of tooth loss and over-inflammation (umbrella term for a whole bunch of symptoms) to the point of leaving absces and attacking bones cannot make sense without a sustained metabolic stress caused by a chronic state of dietary imbalance.

Very little fruits
Mountain gorillas’ food pyramids
Gorillas eat small leaves, stems, fruits, bark, and buds, and occasionally small invertebrates like ants, worms, termites, and larvae. The Western Lowland Gorilla subspecies (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) eat the fruits of more than 100 species of trees, 97 of which produce fruits seasonally. About 67 percent of their diet are fruits, 17 percent are leaves, and the rest are seeds, stems, caterpillars, ants, and termites. Sometimes, they enjoy aquatic plants. The other three gorilla subspecies consume much fewer fruit.
The mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) lives in areas of high altitude above sea level, so their habitat lacks fruit trees. Therefore, they consume leaves, stems, and buds of 142 species of plants, representing up to 86 percent of all their diet. Only 2% are fruits [ - three kinds of fruits- ] , 3% flowers, and 7% roots and invertebrates.

Viruga moutain gorillas (those eating less than 2% fruits) have neared extinction several times these last three centuries (Cross River mountains are nearly extinct for this reason2). And along with their numbers, their living space dwindled too and fragmented. Simply put, to get the same amount of calories, Viruga gorillas eat several times more than Western Lowland gorillas which get as much fruits as they want, or close to.

An analysis of chromosomal sequence sharing within individuals (genomic tracts of homozygosity) provided insight into recent ancestry and a measure of parental relatedness. Within mountain and eastern lowland gorilla individuals, chromosomes are typically homozygous over one-third of their length (on average 34.5% and 38.4%, respectively) (Fig. 2B), much higher than in western lowland individuals (13.8%) and exceeding even the most inbred human populations (18). We observed longer tracts in the eastern species, particularly in mountain gorillas, and a clear distinction in tract length distribution between eastern lowland and mountain gorillas (fig. S15) (15). Very long tracts (2.5 to 10 Mb) are particularly indicative of recent inbreeding, and homozygosity on this scale in mountain gorillas exceeds not only that in other gorilla populations but also that observed in the Altai Neandertal (19), consistent with parental relatedness equivalent to that between two half-siblings (19). These data suggest that mountain gorillas may have experienced several recent generations of close inbreeding.

As judged from the date when inferred Ne began to differ, the divergence of eastern and western gorillas began at least 150,000 years ago, but a more direct analysis using male X-chromosomal sequences suggests that they exchanged genetic material until around 20,000 years ago (Fig. 3B) (15). Given that this also coincides with a notable decline in western lowland gorilla Ne (Fig. 3A), it may be that environmental changes during the Last Glacial Maximum (26,000 to 19,000 years ago), when dry savannah replaced tropical forest over much of the Congo basin (21), triggered a collapse in the western population and complete separation of the two species.

Researching for calories intake would be tedious (and too variable) so I’ll keep with food weight instead: in our experience men normally eat (at most) between 1.7 and 2kg per day. Let us take a weight of 55kg (mine). It makes between 1.8-3% of my body weight.

Years of civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have taken their toll on both the eastern lowland gorilla and the mountain gorilla. The eastern lowland gorilla makes its home in lowland tropical rainforests in the eastern DRC. In the last 50 years, its range has decreased from 8,100 square miles—about the size of the state of Massachusetts— to about 4,600 square miles today. This subspecies may now occupy only 13% of its historical range. There were nearly 17,000 eastern lowland gorillas in the mid-1990s but scientists estimate that the population has declined by more than 50% since then. An accurate accounting of the animals has been impossible for many years because of violence in the region.

Mountain gorillas (males) on a 15%-fruits diet eat on average 18.8kg3 (I wonder how they managed to assess that though !) and weight on average 163 kg(those figures come from the wild since they do not survive in zoos.). Which means a rather robust estimate of 11% of body weight (up to 17% considering an upper limit of 190kg), proportionally three times our quantity. Which makes sense considering they have no more than five fruits in their whole environment, and never at the same time, while it’s about the amount we have in the fridge in any given week.

I can not find the ration of Western gorilla in nature, but they weight substancially less (146 kg in the wild and 157 kg in captivity. Males in captivity however, are noted to be capable of reaching weights up to 275 kg and 310 kg. We find statements claiming mountain gorillas in the wild eat more than their frugivorous counterparts yet it doesn’t appear to hold true for captive western gorillas, which are reported to eat the same amount per day: 18 kg ! 12% of their weight per day is absolutely unjustifiable given a mostly frugivorous diet.
Hence I think Western gorillas eat two or three time more than they should.

And to make it clear: The naturality of diets can never be assumed beforehand, only verified. Reserves and natural parks are lightly to heavily managed and the impact this fact has on animals’ health depends on whether or not they feed them, information typically not mentioned. In some cases we do know, and it does nothing to reduce our suspicions for the general case, because fact is no one gives a damn.4

I believe true nature has become rare even in Africa, let alone Europe and Asia (more heavily cultivated and populated regions, for a longer time as well), explaining both the prevalence of parasitism and unadaptative behaviors as both indicate a poor constitutive health caused by impoverished habitats. It ensues that no study in ethology (science of animal behavior) or even biology when it comes to parasites and viruses can be trusted anymore, for almost no one take into consideration the impact of a poor food range (nor often has any idea what the animal’s original environment should be !), the stress level and physiological that it caused.

It seems that zoos still give them a lot of vegetables so counting calories is not possible, but their wide variation in body weight along with the horrible preparations primates are given in zoos, should eliminate all questioning about the cause of any disease every reported in zoo animals:

Diets offered to juvenile gorillas would follow the same general category proportions (50% produce – 15% fruit, 35% vegetable for increased palatability when introducing solid foods), 25% green leafy produce and/or browse, approximately 18% highfiber primate biscuit, 2% cereal grains, nuts or seeds, and up to 5% animal-based products including milk. Total amounts offered to young gorillas can be increased to approximately 6.5% of total body mass (as-fed basis)5.

A more recent website proves that mentalities haven’t changed6 one bit since 1997. In general, primates can be fed a diet based on commercial monkey biscuits, high-fiber, old world and new world primate pellets, or canned primate diet.

The appalling poverty of their diet and the fact they eat cooked food automatically discard any study whatsoever done on animals fed by humans. It applies to any primate species. Depending on the place and number of animals concerned, reserve animals may or may not be fed. However they will suffer regardless from a lack of variety, as reserves struggle politically to maintain both resource and superficy. Forest fragmentation is dire issue for animals, as it inhibits the natural circulation of seeds and fruits species, sometimes forcing apes to scout in cultivated areas for more food, leading to abberations su.

Studies show that that all populations of gorillas are very flexible, with little to no distinct preference. Their diet reflect the environment they live in and regardless of subspecies the more fruits available the more fruits they will not only eat but seek preferently. Due to both human encroachment into their original habitat and most likely the effect of climate change since the end of the last Ice Age (at the Younger Drias circa 10ky BCE), those gorillas were forced to migrate into widely unsuitable climatic zones with very little fruits.

Experts argued that the over-eating we observe for mountain gorillas is explained by the low nutritional quality of the plants they have access too. But the fact they are so specific about their food point to a slightly different cause: it is the simple fact gorillas are not herbivores, the same way pandas actually love fruits and meat, and rely on bamboos not out of choice or preference or adaptation (their hands adaptated but not their digestive system, still similar as that of their cousins, the bears).

Despite the demonstrated great pickiness of apes in matter of food the idea that their well-being might be negatively impacted by their current possibilities of alimentation has not pierced the unbelievably thick skull of the people in charge of zoos and reserves. Chimpanzees and lowland gorillas on the other hand having as many fruits they want are as versatile, can make-do with just a few fruits species sometimes depending on the season, without sign of lacking. They do not have to constantly collect dozens upon dozens of different unnutritious fibrous plants - and being very specific about which parts.

I compiled excerpts from available literature proving my point7. Wild apes who do not eat as much fruits as chimpanzees can not because of the environment, but would love to. They just got the wrong end of the stick. It entails, that to conclude that diseases is natural because apes have some of them (not nearly as much as us) is eminently dishonest. We evolved along millions of years along a certain range of environmental variation and this cannot be offset in a mere decades, or centuries, or even tens of thousands of years.

Outside that range we may survive but in suboptimal conditions. Studies seem to agree that mountain gorillas came to these altitude became due to climate change since the last ice age, an unfortunate event as a duration of 10 000 years pales in comparison of the millions evolution requires regards to the digestive system and dentition.

In those conditions to conserve animals in their natural environment is foolish and even criminal in case of endangered animals (as are most apes). The environment change faster than animals can adapt ergo if we want pandas and apes to not die, we should relocalise them in rich environments, with a wide range of fruits and preys.
It also entails, that no conclusion whatsoever can be taken from apes in captivity given what they are fed. Captive chimpanzees fare no differently. I do not know natural reserves’ animals, as many of them are managed, especially for popuplations extensively studied. But considering the extent of the Ebola crisis I can not help but conclude that they too, must eat shit.

The quantity of human interference does not matter. Even a small proportion of processed food has proved enough to wreak havock on our nervous balance and immune system.

We must investigate in each case:

Jane Goodall wrote how chimpanzees would seek out the staff’s feces to eat them. In our experience, animals are very attracted to feces from humans eating cooked food, due to their abnormal scent, and ingesting them excites them considerably. Ditto for any human waste, and cooked food.

And all that aside, as a general rule if animals are fed anything processed, they will undeniably suffer the same consequences as men.

For each particular case of disease related, one can easily point at glaring disturbances in the environment. The single, overarching cause, being pollution of any kind, plastic heavy metals industrial coumpounds or anything men can’t help but developped Üntermensch can’t help but diffuse wherever they live.

The case of the Mayaro8 Virus in French Guyana illustrates this sadly well.


One third of all gorillas and chimpanzees died from the Ebola crisis since the early 1990s, around 130 000 deaths for each species according to estimations.9 And Ebola has been heavily linked to deforestation10.
We are not talking small, arguably primitive animals. These are the peek of vertebrate evolution, bonobos being the closest thing to us. It’s been observed numerous times than an excess of something natural, would often lead to symptoms not too dissimilar, to eating the processed or cooked version of that thing. In particular excess of domestic meat, and also fish (including wild ones). The lack of varieties (of a wide enough food range) weakens the body all the same, with upsurges of autoimmunity such as joints hurting.

It is no secret that if an animal will instinctively smell around for hectares in order to find the one thing he prefers, never having that luxury is bound to bring some health issues. We are inextricably tied to the environment we evolved in, on a physiological level. While they can tolerate it, our wider evolutionary line apes did not evolve for dry areas like savanna. But too much aridity will drastically reduce the biodiversity, and available food range, which, as animals lack the foresight and intelligence to move accross a whole country to get back in the forest, trap them inside a constant state of weakness… Which parasites and viruses are designed to screen out.

Anthrax and Drought

Satellite map of world active fires

Those fires are visible from space in the infrared, indicating that Africa is literally burning as you read those words, all year long. How much of that aridity is due to the presence of man ? A lot of it. Even the Sahara, only took off to the extent it does today, around the Egyptian pre-dynastic period, 5,500 - 3,100 BC. Before, a lush climate reigned, hosting lions, crocodiles, hypopotamus and other animals. If this could be said of the desert, then how much more humid were equatorial regions ?

Infrared detection of fires in Angola
Infrared detection of fires in Angola

In the past week, the Global Forest Watch website, with data from the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) instrument on the Suomi NPP satellite reported about 61,661 fire alerts in Angola. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, on the other hand, about 102,738 VIIRS fire alerts were published in the same week, from June 18 to June 25 [ - 2020- ] .
At this time of the year, fires of this magnitude are quite frequent as farmers, in preparation for the new agricultural season, clear old crops by burning them to prepare the land for new plants. This method involves burning the leftovers of old crops in an attempt to get rid of shrubs and unwanted grass on the land. This action restores nutrients to the ground and enables the growth of edible plants in the ensuing planting season.

This form of agriculture called “Slash and burn” is mostly practised in regions abundant with grasslands and rainforest. It is common in parts of Africa, Southeast Asia and northern South America. The slash and burn ritual is economical for farmers, and it dates to 12,000 years ago. Its economic value stands as it eliminates the need for large farming equipment for land clearing.

In fact it is absolutely necessary in many places, as tropical humus are very poor and shallow, despite all the biodiversity, as the soil is highly acidic, making nutrients absorption of nutrients very difficult for roots, and the type of clay particles present has a poor ability to trap nutrients and stop them from washing away, while the high volume of rain in tropical rainforests washes nutrients out of the soil more quickly than in other climates.

We show that if one considers that clouds tend to form more frequently over forested areas, then planting trees over large areas is advantageous and should be done for climate purposes.
senior author, Princeton’s Professor Amilcare Porporato
To reach this conclusion, researchers used satellite records of 2001-2010 cloud cover at latitudes of 30-45, comparing conditions in areas where forests had been replanted or planted for the first time. Not only do forests attract more cloud cover, they found, but clouds form above them earlier in the day, increasing the amount of sunlight they reflect.
Nevertheless, the authors acknowledge the competition that can take place with other land-uses, particularly agriculture.

Lastly the high temperature and moisture of tropical rainforests cause dead organic matter in the soil to decompose more quickly than in other climates, thus releasing and losing its nutrients rapidly. When farmers cut down tropical rainforests and use its soil to try to grow crops, they find little success because of the poor nature of the soil.
Because of agriculture and the incapacity of people under cooking to savour original super-food (the nectar and ambroisy of the gods), we destroyed huge swaths of sensitive forest areas where before animals and pre-cooking humans could find all the variety they would need. Beside, forests maintain wetter climates not only locally, but globally as well helping cloud formation by emitting in the athmosphere molecules which become kernels of nucleation. The same clouds, also reflect more light from the sun, reducing temperature.

While carnivores (the top of the food chain) concentrate the pollution from their prey, grazing animals (herbivores) however seem to be more dependent on plant variety (no wonder) for their health:

Anthrax is rarely lethal for vultures or mammalian carnivores (Robertson 1976) although leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (P. leo), cheetah (Aciconyx jubatus), and genet (Genetta sp.) have been known to succumb to the disease under natural conditions (Pienaar 1960, 1961).
A special problem is that cattle may appear to recover completely from FMD but a number of them become carriers, and hence foci for new infection, for a long time (Bachrach 1978). Influenza virus seems to disappear from the human population after a while but is probably maintained in animal reservoirs (Kilbourne 1978); many migratory bird species contain this virus in their tissues (Lvov 1978). Polio, the third virus related to rinderpest, can survive for significant periods of time in the free state in water.
The means of transmission of these related virus species make it likely that, for example buffalo, can acquire rinderpest easily from the environment or that they can become infected through healthy carriers travelling from area to area.
Sinclair (1979) mentions that in the Serengeti, rinderpest tends to take its toll at the end of the dry season. Anthrax also tends to occur at the end of the dry season in the Kruger National Park (Pienaar 1961, 1967)
The chance to get anthrax is dependent on ecological conditions [ - which- ] tend to occur at the end of the dry season.
Epidemics in Populations of Wild Ruminants: Anthrax and Impala, Rinderpest and Buffalo

Hence in places plant diversity can dwindle to almost zero, conditions become wholly inhospitable for life.

Of all the regions of Kruger, the vegetation in the north is the least diversified and much of the region is blanketed in shrub mopane (Colophospermum mopane). The distribution of this tree in South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe coincides with hot, semi-arid, low-lying valleys, and the mopane thrives under these conditions. Mopane leaves hang vertically and during the heat of the day very little shade is cast, which helps to minimise evaporation.
During the severe drought of the mid-1940s, the Letaba stopped flowing for two short spells at the end of winter. The Letaba and Olifants rivers are home to 60 per cent of the Park’s hippo, and in the past large numbers of hippo died in times of drought.
Northern Kruger Park Region

Truncated Lifespans ?

The bonobo has no significant predator, apart from humans. The leopard does not significantly impact the demography of bonobos, which is entirely regulated by food availability. Since our intelligence has reached a certain threshold, say 1000 cm³ and our mobility with it, the pressure of predators (already low) has completely disappeared. On the contrary, the prey was able to become the top predator with disconcerting ease: nothing is too big for thirty spears, a dam or a forest fire. However, nature did not use to suffer before 30,000 years and wheelbarrows. Diseases… do not exist with instinctonutrition, but that is the theory. What about observations ?

Conscientious, intelligent observation demonstrated that humans are responsible, directly and indirectly for halving the mean lifespan of chimpanzees, from about 32 to 15. It applies to apes at minima, but without doubt to all animals for which predation has become negligeable relative to their natural life expectancy11.
In 2001, a meta-study summed up and averaged the data concerning mortality over 5 different sites and representing represent 3711 chimpanzee years at risk and 278 deaths, and claimed to have verified statistically an enormous mortality among wild chimpanzees compared to their captive brethrens (giving a lifespan of respectively 15 and 35). Many of these sites have been the place of poaching and heavy epidemic onsets, both brought by humans.
Though not glossing over the very debatable merit of including deaths seemingly so unnatural, the researchers answered with a dumbfoundingly candid andwer, claiming that since primitive humans have cohabited with and hunted apes a few times, the deaths due to epidemics and poaching alike should be considered natural. They considered ebola, as natural.
And as the icing on the cake, I shall remind you that among these sites, Gombe (Gomba in the text) saw the most violent and vicious chimpanzee war ever observed. That alone should have been a red flag, if not for the continuous effort of Wrangham and his ilk to convince the world that bloodlust and rapes had been passed down to humans by chimpanzees. Tthey did acknowledge a significant variation among sites, without detailing. Nor do they detail on the different means obtained by removing different sources of mortality. So we were led to conclude, that apes led unfairly short and painful lives in the wild, from which they were saved by zoos and closely monitored national parks.

Then in 2017 the truth came out12. It was shown that, beside predation being indeed a non-factor in mortality, under good ecological conditions:

In conclusion the authors rightfully attributed this massive health differential to the rich environment the Ngogo community profited from13, compared to their neighbours at Kanyawara, and the other four sample communities.
Better and richer food make for a stronger immunity, regenerative abilities and assumedly lower stress levels, making abnormalities like the Gombe war unlikely. Apes just should not die from infections, degenerative issues or tumors (the most common causes among captive ones14). For highly evolved long-lived critters with no predator and inhabiting rich environments, the main source of death, beside infant mortality, should always be slower or faster ageing due to individual genetic differences.

There are evidences however, that suggest the environment in Ngogo still isn’t perfectly pristine. If wide-sweeping epidemics are unknown, diseases aren’t15. If deaths due to diseases seemed both rare and hard to prove, many individuals, especially approaching a relative old age (36, despite the older chimp reported reaching the 55), have been shown suffering from respiratory ailments common in all zoos. While individual genetics might play a role, it has been proved that non-lethal but chronic ailments act as sources of metabolic stress, reducing resilience to wounds falls and accelerate ageing. The same stress that is known to increase inter-individual aggression, sexual violence, infanticides, etc. Said aggression very lethal and mostly toward inter-communities, without reaching Gombe’s levels, seems important in Ngogo16.

By the medium of heightened stress levels, in long-lived animals we can expect environments of lower integrity to foster all the above causes of deaths: adult diseases, excess infant mortality faster ageing, con-specific killings or otherwise antisocial instincts going overboard. And since all of these do certainly exist in some (very) limited degree, it ensues that telling apart the natural, genetic components for each rate from the artificial influence, is impossible without a proper theory of what a natural environment means on a molecular level.

As the very fact of observation (let alone consgtant monitoring, isolation or care) proves, a pristine nature can never be assumed. Ergo, without knowing beforehand about the natural laws of alimentation, the dependency on observations makes researchers automatically miscontrue the natural state for a given species.

So at most, observations in the wild can at best show a range of possible ecological circumstances, with low odds to correlate with them any trait in the life history of apes, with any degree of certainty because of their very long life compared to lab animals (as well as the rapidly changing state of their forest over the years.

Instead we need to lesson from known cases and engineer a suitably large forest (more like improve an existing one) to the best specifications, and bring inside a few unrelated and suitably large groups of chimpanzees, then observe for 40 years.
Obviously, that is in practice not possible !

it might well be that lions wouldn’t be so extremely aggressive to each others, or to non-prey species, if Africans had not cleared nearly all the forests of the continents and made the place as arid as it is now. There is the argument to be had, regards to the naturalness of dry savannahs as a whole.

Behavioral Anomalies

From metapsychoanalysis, was derived the notion of metapsychic evolutionary principle, and which serves as an heuristic to put in perspective animal behaviors, how likely they are for a given species of a given intelligence and lifespan (in short, its stature on the evolutive ladder) and what eventual discrepancies from expectations could teach us.

We view possessing polymorphic sexual instincts (like ours) unrelated to breeding, as an evidence of metapsychic evolution, as the potent sexual drive is transcended and put to a better use. While we perceive intelligent yet immoderately unreasonable or vicious species as evolutionary dead-ends in the grand scheme of things. Natural selection might produce all sorts of combinations in terms of species-wide personality traits, instincts and cognitive abilities. Not all of these might make sense on a higher level than the immediate survival of the species.
Staying within a restrictive reductionist perspective, other elements factor in the continual survival of a species along millions of years up to geological times.

A species might be well endowed for its immediate environment, but not adapted enough to support any ensuing ecological change of any kind, local as well as global. On the opposite, species endowed with a general capacity for physiological or behavioral adaptations (in one individual or a few generations) like those trees featuring diverse ecotypes for the same genetics depending on the altitude, from small corpses to very tall trees. The issue is, one can assume such adaptations to pack a lot of information, taking a long gradual time to produce… meaning this kind of adaptation at initial low levels of development might be quite poorly responsive to too strong selective pressures, if we only considered neodarwinist mechanisms.

Yet, there might exist another kind of incompatibility in the long run. When contemplating species like orca, which allegedly savagely hunt and kill dolphin (though never humans, strangely enough). We tend to expect intelligence to acknowledge intelligence, not consider it as food. An reason would be a lack of instinct to prey on us, not having evolved in our vicinity. However lower predators (cats, weasels) usually have no issue munching entirely new preys to extinction whenever transported to new islands.

No species whose intelligence borders on our own to some capacity, mainly cetaceans, elephants and great apes, ever considered us as a food, despite often a consistent overwhelming physical disadvantage on our side. Simply put: monkey sees us, monkey bigger, monkey should tear our arms out and eat them.

Yet it doesn’t happen.

We would expect constant cruelty or unscrupulousness to be strongly associated with a strictly breeding-minded sexual behavior. Indeed a hardcoded predatory mindset goes hand in hand with a highly territorial, highly competitive nature, while mating behaviors are seasonale (matching oestrus cycles closely), see fights over partners and little long-lasting relationships - beyond sometimes - those limited to a couple raising their offspring.

Despite boasting a bigger brain than dolphins, orcas match those boxes well, whereas dolphins (while still predating on fish) show both a lot more empathy and social complexity, and a sexuality much the same as bonobos’, save for the anatomical differences. Orkas’s playful nature regards to food (much like a cat) hasn’t really been observed for dolphins either.

This essential bipartition based on the attitude toward love, pervades all of our understanding of evolution and psychology, human and non-human alike, and this shouldn’t come as a surprise, if - as we believe - the spiritual layer of reality and its comprehension indeed is the most important thing in life, the very purpose of life (intelligent life in particular) in the long run, of existence itself.

It is bound to be reflected by evolution: species don’t just become spiritual because. It comes with a few requirements, which might or might not come up as probable or easy to check, as natural evolution readily rewards opportunistic, amoral tendencies.

One should expect older intelligent species (which could isolate themselves from predation-based natural-selection for some time) to align with some moral standards, with time, and most sapient species at any given time to show some control over their opportunistic tendencies, merely by virtue of evolutionary pressures.

In the end, extrasensory abilities are the single most generalist and powerful adaption any genre could muster, ultimately allowing survival despite any odds through prescient perception of dangers, up to (as some humans show, and in the past all Neanderthals) an absolute domination of the planet, the environment, and the laws of physics themselves. The problem is, it takes very specific conditions to advance to the point of sustaining its continuous improvement.

Unless your whole group is nice too, ruthlessness tends to be more adaptative as it grants dominance, without which one ends up childess, dooming that genetic progress a mutant may represent.

Which is why I get particularly angsty and tensed, when I read about wild animals showing very perplexing - downright insane - behaviors, spitting not only at the face of evolution as we understand it, but of our personal experience of raw animals too.

Justifying Alcoholism

Constantly news media relate stories of drunken animals, with the obvious intent to clear our conscience, ascribing our addiction to alcohol not to people being utter degenerates (who would survive a week in the wild) but accusing nature itself of having made us potential drunkards. There could not be a better copout strategy than finding drunk animals.
Even if half those cases are fake and the remaining highly misguiding, and we will show it. It wouldn’t even warrant my time writing this, if a number of scientists too had not been called to accredit those myths.

The problem is similar to that of drugs or other natural psychotropic/psychogenic substances. It can be summed up in 3 points:

  1. Does it exist in wild nature in a concentration great enough to produce any physiological effect ?
  2. If so are animals instinctively guarded against too high a concentration ?
  3. Can they acquire a preference for it, if so in what conditions ?

We will start with alcohol, the most easily - relatively speaking - psychoactive chemical compound, as a natural product of sugar fermentation in fruits, nectar or sap.
Indeed the first question one must wonder even assuming all mammals had an automatic appeal for alcohol, is: could we even enough to get drunk ?
Obviously that will depend on several factor, not just dietary availability (with primates, the amount of fruits rotting on the ground), but the composition of said fermented/alcoholic food in the animal’s diet, and its metabolic rate. By virtue of natural selection, animals routinely eating a big proportion of sugar (especially if susceptible to ferment) will have have a bigger liver relative to their size, and higher levels of Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADH), the enzymes responsible for breaking down ethanol.

And the physiological tolerance to alcohol concentration in our blood also differ, so that only experimental results can decide what does or not cause ebriety.

We discovered that seven mammalian species in a West Malaysian rainforest consume alcoholic nectar daily from flower buds of the bertam palm (Eugeissona tristis), which they pollinate. The 3.8% maximum alcohol concentration (mean: 0.6%; median: 0.5%) that we recorded is among the highest ever reported in a natural food.
Nectar high in alcohol is facilitated by specialized flower buds that harbor a fermenting yeast community, including several species new to science. Pentailed treeshrews (Ptilocercus lowii) frequently consume alcohol doses from the inflorescences that would intoxicate humans. Yet, the flower-visiting mammals showed no signs of intoxication. Analysis of an alcohol metabolite (ethyl glucuronide) in their hair yielded concentrations higher than those in humans with similarly high alcohol intake.
2008, Chronic intake of fermented floral nectar by wild treeshrews
While experimental approaches aimed at producing alcohol addiction must be carried out with nonhuman subjects, evidence from animal studies has indicated that it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to produce an alcoholic animal in the sense in which the term is applied to man. It should be noted that there are some very real differences between the usual alcohol-drinking behavior observed in human beings and the reported instances of alcohol intake in other species.
It is true that nonhuman animals have been induced to drink solutions containing alcohol and to become intoxicated (Lester, 1966). The inducements have, however, been rather drastic. For example, animals deprived of water for many hours develop extreme thirst which forces them to tolerate alcohol solutions. Similarly, animals deprived of food for long periods of time have been observed to consume solutions containing alcohol, presumably for caloric value (Malmo, 1965). When not in need of food or water, however, animals generally avoid alcohol.
1972, Voluntary Alcohol Consumption in Apes

Assuming an uncontrolled natural disposition for it, for megafauna (animals our size or bigger) to get drunk one would require enormous amount of fermented fruits at the same place and time incompatible with any notion of instinctive regulation, so that an automatic vomitive reflex would kick in before the alcohol level could rise in any capacity. It is a fact that natural food almost never reach beer-levels of ethanol, let alone degrees higher than 3%.
So in any case to argue an hypothetical taste for a 1 to 1.5% degree in food still wouldn’t account for humans’ addiction or taste to the likes of cidar (3%) beer (4.2%) whine (5%) sake (15%) or whisky (40%). The tolerance to a certain substance selected by evolution has to reflect the conditions found in our environment, which never included anything higher than 2% at the very worst in any appreciable quantity. Therefore no evolutionary argument can explain a taste for alcohol beverage.

Only the paradoxal physiological state induced by cooking, plus the early anihilation of our dietary instinct could, plus a strong cultural psycho-cultural conditioning to do away with the inborn aversion every child experiences. That is why captive primates have been seen liking some level of alcohol17.

Considering that:

Secondly, the precise regulation in ethanol consommation observed might allude to a certain dose of fermentation (indicated by ethanol) being not just benign but desirable, due to us having adapted to it. Some even spontaneously forms in our guts. The monkeys may have just sought to compensate for the lack of it in their lab diet.

Typically, children learn to break open aversion barriers to coffee and alcohol by masking their taste with sugar, prefering sweat beers or cidar to wine. Sugar + ethanol might as well explain why people start drinking, the combination unconsciously reminding their body of fermented fruits.

Integral rawfoodists keep that alliesthetic disgust for fruits even slightly too fermented, meaning that beer-level fermentation just isn’t attractive in the slightest for wild primates, quite the opposite.

Despite of good predictions and evidences so far, the drunken monkey hypothesis is laughable, because such low concentrations do not compare at all with that of our drinks.
The second arguments doesn’t hold water either nor would it be justified by evolution, as by definition an hypothetical feeding stimulant effect could not be inherent to a simple chemical such as alcohol but would have developed as an adaptive response. However simply eating more has no value whatsoever, we eat when we must, how much we must, and we’re very picky at it. All creatures down to the simplest bacteria are wired with this drive, the strongest in existence. It needs no outside incentive to kick in or remind the animal that it should it.

Both bees and vertebrates show (except the rare few species surviving on a single source of course), show very specific preferences. Even total predators will choose with great care the parts to ingest (innards over anything else). Bees will favor some species of flowers over others.
Calories (for the overwhelming majority of vertebrates) are not the most important for one’s equilibrium, they represent only one need: energy. We tolerate occasional or even chronic low amounts very well, regulating our activity and metabolic rate as a consequence. Calories, for primates at least, definitely are not the limiting factors in their diet, unlike vitamins and the thousands of micronutrients.

Ergo by virtue of evolution no animals (except perhaps extreme specialists) that lived with a given food range (or anything remotely close on the molecular level) for a few tens of thousand years could develop in contact with a given food range can develop to associate automatically (bypassing alliesthetic regulations) a specific food component to a reward circuit.


But exposition of the cocktail of thousands of new chemical compounds each cooking recipes magnifies reward circuits a hundred times, creating evolutionary counter-intuitive though a powerful dependency neurologically identical to that of drugs:

A well-known characteristic of addictive drugs is their ability to cause repeated, intermittent increases in extracellular dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We find that rats with intermittent access to sugar will drink in a binge-like manner that releases DA in the NAc each time, like the classic effect of most substances of abuse. This consequently leads to changes in the expression or availability of DA receptors.
Intermittent sugar access also acts by way of opioids in the brain. There are changes in opioid systems such as decreased enkephalin mRNA expression in the accumbens (Spangler et al., 2004). Signs of withdrawal seem to be largely due to the opioid modifications since withdrawal can be obtained with the opioid antagonist naloxone. Food deprivation is also sufficient to precipitate opiate-like withdrawal signs.

Unsurprisingly these studies (yes, plural) raised a whole lot of controversies, since it amounts to calling nearly everyone liking sweets a druggie.
These conclusions provoked many outraged reactions:

Tom Sanders, emeritus professor of nutrition and dietetics at King’s College London said that it was “absurd to suggest that sugar is addictive like hard drugs.”
While it is true that a liking for sweet things can be habit-forming it is not addictive like opiates or cocaine, said Sanders. Individuals do not get withdrawal symptoms when they cut sugar intake.

Except that people very high on industrial sugar totally do. This kind of criticism smells a lot like a defense mechanism to me ! How on Earth does the relative peace of getting one’s dose at regular interval proving that it’s not a drug ? People are addicts to tobacco and it doesn’t seem to alter their personality as long as they can smoke whenever they want. Remove it and things change.

Robert Lustig, professor of paediatrics at the University of California San Francisco said he shared the concerns of DiNicolantonio and colleagues. I do believe that sugar is addictive, based on its metabolic and hedonic properties he said. Lustig has previously argued that sugar is the alcohol of the child. However, while he said he believed sugar was a drug of abuse, he considered it a weak one, on a par with nicotine, rather than drugs like heroin.

I agree, cooking as a whole appears much harder to withdraw from than mere just white sugar (or saccharine). It may be essentially socio-psychological - arguably ? - but to master the will to forgo all recipes and follow one’s instinct is more difficult than to stop drinking or smoking, one paar with cocain addiction. As for the preference for natural sources of alcohol in the wild, no study was every conducted.

Studies of inborn preference of alcohol in the wild for higher vertebrates are absent. We do have a study about chimpanzees in the wild but with proper alcohol, and not in a form we could possibly ever evolve to regulate. Fermented fruits lie on the ground every now and then. But this ?

Chimpanzees at Bossou ingest this alcoholic beverage, often in large quantities, despite an average presence of ethanol of 3.1% alcohol by volume (ABV) and up to 6.9% ABV. Local people tap raffia palms and the sap collects in plastic containers, and chimpanzees use elementary technology — a leafy tool — to obtain this fermenting sap. These data show that ethanol does not act as a deterrent to feeding in this community of wild apes, supporting the idea that the last common ancestor of living African apes and modern humans was not averse to ingesting foods containing ethanol.

Fermented sap on the other hand lies outside the range of what could occur in nature, and requires a human artifice to brew. Chimpanzees drink sap from the tree, never brewing for a minute, let alone a week. A minute of reasoning should suffice to realize that evolution was in no way required to guard us against fermented sap, no more than against any other form of brewage impossible to find in nature.

As all forms of processing brewing is likely to bypass natural regulations. So to assume from the behavior of wild chimps eating who-knows-what that the common ancestors of all primates developed an inborn tendency for alcoholism goes beyond stupidity, into the realm of willful deceit of public opinion.


drunken birds run over by a car

Some birds have a very specialized diet, consisting mostly if not totally on fruits. So like the treeshrews, they evolved to ingest digest and excrete in a matter of an hour up to the equivalent of a man of 70 kg eating 14 kg at once, not even throughout the day. Their metabolism, as per the requirements of constant flight as well as thermogenesis (in both case the smaller the less efficient energy-wise) is - as general rule - much faster than mammals’, and the smaller the faster.
Hence for a given feeding/digestion time they will be in contact with a lot more alcohol per gram of body mass than would frugivores among mammals. Then those levels quickly dwindle as the ethanol (then more importantly, its toxic subproduct acetaldehyde) breaks down assaulted by enzymes.

But do birds always cope with their diet ? Natural selection would say Yes of course duh but people keep reporting slews of wild birds dropping from the sky, running into windows and cars, singing on the street in groups oblivious to human, unable to fly off. Seemingly completely hammered. And people love to report it, incriminating fermenting berries.

See the New York Times, in 2018, giving io this self-conforting popular telltale of drunken birds.
Scientifics have been debating for decades by now, owning to the difficulty of analyzing the lots of dead or allegued drunken birds by foresensic pathologists, in order to ascertain common causes of possibly unrelated accidents. One difficulty lies in the variety of species involved19.

In some cases, the science is settled:

Every fall, flocks of robins migrate to warmer climates to escape dropping temperatures. They use up a lot of energy and Bay Area gardens have become popular pit stops along the way. The starving birds usually stay a week or so to dine on tasty berries and worms before continuing their journey south.

In reality, the birds are just suffering the aftereffects of a serious case of overeating. When the robins land in your yard, they are starving. They dive headlong into the berry bushes in a feeding frenzy, made all the more frantic by each other’s competitive actions as they fight to see who can eat the most berries in a single gulp.

Bird life is further complicated when suddenly elevated blood sugars, from gorging on sweet berries, contribute to the avian hyperactivity. This overeating also results in top-heavy, overweight birds staggering around the sky as they try to deal with the effects of gravity on dramatically modified flight characteristics. Filled to the brim with 10 to 15 juicy berries apiece, about 20 percent of each bird’s natural weight, they are no longer graceful fliers.
Those fresh, unfermented, nonalcoholic berries are a source of nutritious food for many wild creatures. The pyracantha berry is the potato of the bird world.
The ripening process continues from October through January, depending on subspecies of berry, air temperature, moisture, etc.
It is quite obvious there is a marked difference in flavor between ripe and unripe berries. I’ve seen whole flocks of robins skip over entire bushes because the berries obviously didn’t taste just right to them.

That behavior alone, ethanol-induced stupor or not, doesn’t seem normal at all. Both populations and needs should be tailored to the quantities and diversity of food, so that animals shouldn’t feel any such rush, not to the point of killing themselves, when less ripe fruits exist. If for some reason in tens or hundreds of thousands of years that very parameter (availability of ripe berries) did not change, then birds would adapt to eat on less riped ones. And coevolution - birds spreading seeds by shitting them - would favor species ripening earlier or longer.
The fact it didn’t happen, means that there used to be enough food so that such selection pressure couldn’t increase.
It doesn’t take a galaxy-brain to realize that in the past, a mere 50 years ago, urbanization in the US wasn’t nearly as extensive and intensive as today. There were a lot more trees, more diverse too, the farther back in time we go.

So, environmental depredation, as usual.

Several wild cedar waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) fell from a rooftop following ingestion of overwintered hawthorn (Crataegussp.) pommes. At necropsy,there was pericardial hemorrhage,although no microscopic abnormalities were found. Ethanol was present in crop contents (380 ppm) and in the livers (238 and 989 ppm). The cause of death was attributed to hemorrhage following a fall precipitated by ethanol intoxication.
1990, Suspected Ethanol Toxicosis in Two Wild Cedar Waxwings

It is possible too that in some cases some birds fall back on back on less appealing, too fermented berries pushing the with health consequences. Maybe.
How much of them is highly debatable and was debated to death.

This report describes the gross and microscopic and toxicological findings from 21 to 90 Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) that were submitted for necropsy after death caused by flying into stationary hard objects.
A significant finding in our study is the detection of 1,000 ppm ethanol in the liver of one of nine birds, 260 ppm in two of six pools of intestinal contents, and 700 ppm from the out-of-state submission of one of two gastrointestinal pools analyzed. Ethanol was not detected in eight livers, in six pools of crop, and six pools of gizzard contents. In our study, the primary cause of death in the 21 birds necropsied was hepatic rupture and severe internal hemorrhage from blunt trauma.
In a feeding trial of Bohemian Waxwings, blood ethanol levels were found to be as high as 20 and 50 ppm, and it was suggested that these levels are so low that they cannot be assumed to have any influence upon the bird’s flying ability and behavior. However, Cedar Waxwings used in the study were twice as large as in our report.
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity is high in fruit eaters and low in seed-eating birds. Prinzinger and Hakim (1996) reported that the combination of the high ADH activity and the low concentration of alcohol normally found in fermented fruits and berries means that birds have no problem in coping with alcohol. Others have estimated that, if the Waxwing ate 30 g of rowan berries in 1 h, the alcohol content in the water phase of the bird would be 0.5 %, in spite of its alcohol elimination. This high ethanol concentration might be expected to affect the bird’s ability to fly.

To conclude with this:
Lots of hypotheticals, we do not know what levels would produce what effect exactly - we cannot translate directly in blood levels either, hence not compare directly with humans. In this sample we can conclude that intoxication may likely have contributed, though overeating and sugar levels might have factored more (or even solely) in these deaths.

And no one ever showed that (wild) birds prefer fermented berries so in no way did these happenings ever help condone our alcoholism:

Either birds aren’t drunk, or chose the wrong fruits by mistake (highly improbable) or were forced to rely on them out of necessity.

Ape Violence

In 2004 has been published Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts by Wrangham & Wilson, according to which the regularity and pattern of killings in chimpanzees reveal a vicious, demonic (the term is theirs) and violent male nature, bent on treating females like resource, and resort to bloodbath whenever it seems advantageous for their selfish interest. Are chimpanzee males driven by the love of their group and the wish to get along like we would expect (a bit naively perhaps ?) any evolved critter (such as intelligent aliens) to behave ?

In 2010 as a responses to criticisms regards to these ideas (already quite clear) in Chimpanzee violence is a serious topic: A response to Sussman and Marshack’s critique of Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence, they stated:

In a survey of nine study communities in the five longest-studied populations of chimpanzees with more than one community, Wrangham et al (2006) reported that the median risk of violent death for chimpanzees from inter-community killing (69-287 per 100,000 per year) fell in the same order of magnitude as the median reported values for rates of death from warfare among subsistence-society hunters and farmers (164 and 595 per 100,000 per year, respectively).

Except the frequency in primitive societies has been very overestimated.

Lowe et al. arrived at similar conclusions regarding infanticides as the product of inherently evil males, specifically targetting unweaned infants as lactation stops female fertility. But their conclusions based on very few cases given the duration considered, and simply does not check out statistically.
A 10:8 male-to-female attackers ratio over merely 35 individuals does not support his hypothesis, which should see most attacks being made by males on young children of other groups. And not only would it not explain in-group infanticides but they directly contradict the notion of reproductive opportunity killings, because a male chimpanzee has no means to know whether a child in his own group is his own.

This and other such filmsy propositions, as well as their ideological underpinnings - Wrangham and co’s whole thesis looking explicitely to make a good excuse for wars which would be natural and instinctive - are thoroughly highlighted and destroyed with statistical facts and sound arguments, in Brian Ferguson’s work, which I enjoin you to read. This author, we unapologetically shill. I could not stress more, how this work is crucial to defend the animal cause and our platform:

The gist of it:

Thus 59% of all intergroup killings of grown individuals come from just 10 years. (3 additional male and 2 female killings come from those same two sites a few years later). The intergroup killings of weaned individuals during the two intense conflicts at Gombe and Ngogo produce a rate of 1.7 killings per year; whereas the other 416 observation years calculate to .03 per year. If intergroup killing is an evolved adaptive strategy, it is a pretty rare occurrence outside those two clusters.

Thus most killings were extremely concentrated and removing these outliers restores a much more balanced opinion of should be instinctive, although as we saw before, it is certain that all sites bar none are disturbed, because nearly (hence, not all) all show diseases that are direct evidence of a denatured or otherwise very unbalanced alimentation. In the articles, the point is made that no simple explanatory model fits the data. Violence level seems to simply increase indiscriminately at some point, in some places, for some reason, regardless of group size or proximity to other groups. But there is a very straight-forward explanation, that only us can come up with:
we have been feeding literal shit to animals from 1975 onward, in most observation sites, or at least those featuring murders.

This much has been confessed by none other than Jane Goodall herself, the fact that killings only started She started limited human-controlled feeding of bananas, which significantly changed their behavior from pacific and caring to aggressive, competitive, opportunistically violent as related by Robert Sussmann. Typically from then on males started being described as fighting over females like bulls. So, nigger. !
Ferguson correctly incriminates disturbances in the environment, including feedings, but in the article he does agree that no one form of disturbance or model of explanation suffices to explain the form killings take… If all sites with killings are disturbed and humanized, within them, the correlation with no any particular factor is strong.

We claim that population density alone, nor contact with humans per se, should matter in and of themselves. In our experience territorial animals if fed raw fair very well in confined spaces despite their reluctance to intermingle: they segregate and eat on their own quitely.

The only form of perturbation that can wreak havock on the psychological balance of chimpanzees to this point, is molecular perturbance, denatured food.

Instead of settling on this most parcimonious hypothesis, which would also explain why some primitive societies (and thus, chimpanzees) vary sometimes considerably in their war-like tendencies due to their diet and related erratic nature of psychological pathologies, the proponents of the intrinsic evilness focus on unconclusive studies and disregard the statistical variation on murders both among human primitive socities as mostly random or the proof that muh culture can combat the demon inside.

In that condition, given our genetic proximity there is no mystery anymore as to the similarity between the behavior of fed chimpanzees (or otherwise presented with an appallingly poor dietary variety, sufficient to make them all die from Ebola) and neolithic people: tolerating and seeking bigger groups, tribal conflicts, diseases… and fucking like rabbits:

We observed extremely high frequency of promiscuous mating of female chimpanzees in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda. During the observation in 2001, three females copulated for 3.1 times per hour in average. In an extreme case, a female copulated for 39 times within 343 min, and she sometimes copulated with two males within one minutes. They copulated with most of adult male chimpanzees found in the party and there was no aggression between male chimpanzees.
Extremely High Frequency of Promiscuous Mating of Female Chimpanzees Observed in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda, Intra‑community infanticide in wild, eastern chimpanzees: a 24‑year review, 2019

The contrast is too striking, this breeding and aggression overdrive are characteristic of cooking feedback. Some promoted the idea of local ape cultures, that young chimpanzees when raised in, could adopt and thus display a slew of varied behaviors all within the range of what is genetically possible for them.
But I disagree with this, as the separation of nature and culture in humans is a recent invention in history. Cultures as we know them should not exist.
Of course material cultures (tool usages) of course need to be learnt over time nd vary but that alone cannot impact psychology, not can the little variation in available source food if they fit within instinctive range, because of basic homeostasy.

Finally, behaviors are normally a product of genes and genes only:
Our human cultures arise from the impredictible interactions of our messed-up nervous system with innate personality traits and fickle change in sexual repression.


What we have been observing for decades is the alteration of behaviors with any form of processed food (the more processed the worse) compared to raw paleolithic food, so, imitating wild animals. For us humans, it meant imitating chimpanzees.
From our perspectives, it is very likely that the entire world’s been afflicted with low levels of pollution, plastic bits or otherwise, altering maybe considerably, natural behaviors. Me and a bunch of other individuals have been observing this within the context of alternative diets, both on our persons (actually, thousands of people, though most were more concerned with diet than with psychogenic effects) and animals alike.
Molecular stress (any unnatural amount of molecules not found in the species’ natural environment or diet) appeared to almost universally make animals less alert yet more excited, with increased levels of breeding behaviors and exacerbed secondary sexual character traits like territorial dominance male aggressivity and female passivity, as shown at least for mice in Abnormal behaviours induced by chemical pollution: a review of the evidence and new challenges by Sarah M. zala & Dustin J. Penn.
Simulacra (as defined by Konrad Lorentz, displays whose real purpose is different from the real one) go completely out of control. In the case of chimpanzees simple brawls aimed at deciding new hierarchies, can change into seemingly organized murders of the kind only humans are capable of.

Until the complete natural environment (in terms of food range at least) of a population has been reconstituted to a significant degree within a perimeter, speculating about ape nature like the likes of Wrangham do is ridiculous.
Actually I am positive these people find a perverse pleasure in tarnishing the public image of animals, almost on a sexual level. I read countless articles which would put to shame tabloids like the Sun.

I believe the mainstream public is simply too eager to accept any pseudoscientific theory relieving them of the guilt borne of comparing harmonious functional primate societies with our highly dysfunctional, messed-up societies. It is easier to blame genetics and nature, than to put the effort into correcting one’s lifestyle and culture.. In 50 years there might be almost nothing left of big wild animal species, a decaying world.

  1. The mountain gorillas of the central Virungas have been the subject of field study for the last 30 years;
    However, our understanding of morbidity and mortality in these apes is limited. This paper describes pathological conditions of the skeleton and dentition of these animals and evaluates lesions in relation to behavioral and environmental data. The skeletal remains of 31 mountain gorillas from the Karisoke Research Center were examined for enamel wear, carious lesions, abscesses, periodontal disease, antemortern tooth loss, trauma, inflammation, arthritis, neoplasia, and developmental anomalies. Two infants, three juveniles, 13 adult males, and 13 adult females form the sample.

    [ - Abscessing- ]
    Six periapical abscesses were seen; three are associated with antemortem tooth breakage.
    Much of the abscessing in nonhuman primates can usually be attributed to ante-mortem breakage of the tooth crown, usually the canine tooth, which exposes the pulp cavity to bacteria (Lovell, 1987). Kilgore has similarly suggested that a major contributing factor to the development of abscesses in the Gombe chimpanzees is exposure of the pulp cavity through enamel wear, caused by the chewing and stripping activities of food preparation.
    Pronounced calculus buildup and alveolar resorption are the most notable pathological conditions of the dentition and affect all adult animals.

    [ - arthritis and other bone related issues- ] :
    Arthritis occurs in more than half of the adult gorillas (14 animals), with the spine most commonly affected. This condition results primarily from age-related degenerative changes and is not severe enough to have limited movement in any but the oldest animals.
    Vertebral degenerative disease predominates, but there is also temporomandibular joint involvement.
    Fractures occur at seven locations in the postcranium. In addition, there are five cranial injuries, including a fractured sagittal crest, and a penetrating wound to the vault, which is believed to result from a bite. Also thought to result from a bite is a case of cranial osteomyelitis [ - bone inflammation- ] . The only other inflammatory responses are two cases of idiopathic periostitis and one idiopathic lytic lesion Definition: Destruction of an area of bone due to a disease process . Button osteomas Definition: Aymptomatic non-cancerous bone overgrowth, rather common in humans affect two animals and are the only neoplastic conditions observed.
    Two animals are afflicted by developmental abnormalities: one animal by idiopathic [vertebral fusion] and the other by spinal scoliosis..
    Fifteen animals were afflicted with arthritis. Whinny and Congo exhibit erosion, without marginal lipping Definition: Overgrowth of bone around a joint as seen on X-ray. This is a characteristic sign of degenerative joint disease and occurs most frequently and prominently in osteoarthritis , at the right temporomandibular joint. Most other cases involve vertebral degenerative joint disease. Thoracic vertebrae are affected by marginal lipping in two females and one male.
    Rafiki shows considerable arthritic change in his spine.
    The first through tenth thoracic vertebrae show variable erosion and marginal lipping, at costal facets on both transverse processes and centra, with the right side being affected to a greater degree than the left. In addition, Rafiki’s skeleton exhibits some degenerative change at almost all other synovial joints.
    The third lumbar centra displays extensive lipping on the left anterolatera1 inferior margin. The fourth lumbar vertebra shows extensive erosion and lipping on the right superior articular facet. The fourth lumbar and first sacral vertebrae are fused at the central margins by osteophyte formation.
    The left knee is most noticeably affected: the femur displays considerable destruction and arthritic hypertrophy on the distal articular surface. The tibia is similarly affected on the corresponding proximal surfaces, especially laterally.
    The fibular articular facet on the left tibia is enlarged (25 mm in diameter, compared to the unaffected fibular facet on the right tibia, which is only 20 mm in diameter), with extensive marginal lipping and deformity.
    Tsundura 3 has what appears to be the congenital bony ankylosis of the third and fourth thoracic vertebrae at the pedicles and spinous processes (Fig. 5). The centra are unaffected. Rafiki’s spine has extreme lateral curvature of the cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae, with the apex of curvature at C5 (Fig. 6)

    [ - Inflammation:- ]
    Aside from alveolar periostitis, only four gorillas exhibit inflammatory lesions. In one of these animals, Whinny, the right side of the cranium exhibits extensively remodelled osteomyelitis, affecting the temporal and occipital bones (Fig. 31, a condition first described in an autopsy report (Fossey, 1983). While the autopsy results indicate death from advanced pleurisy and pneumonia, as well as peritonitis, no skeletal lesions from these thoracic conditions were observed. Two gorillas exhibit idiopathic periostitis Definition: inflammation of the membrane enveloping a bone .
    The adult male Limbo has remodelled periosteal apposition, in the form of cortical striations, on the posterior surface of the distal right radial shaft.
    Unfortunately, due to postmortem erosion, the extent of this inflammatory response is unclear. An unnamed juvenile female has more extensive periostitis: the femoral and tibial shafts display diffuse, remodelled cortical striations.
    A patch of active, fine-grained periostitis, 33 by 20 mm, is evident on the internal surface of the right iliac blade, above the greater sciatic notch.
    A similar but smaller lesion is present on the left ilium. The fourth case of inflammation is found in the adult male Tsundura 2; a small resorptive lesion is located at the medial distal diaphysis of the fibula, superior to the tibial articulation.
    Alveolar resorption in the gorillas is comparatively extreme. Pronounced calculus buildup has been observed in the Gombe chimpanzees (Kilgore,in press) but is rare among other free-ranging chimpanzees.

    Skeletal and Dental Pathology of Free-Ranging Mountain Gorillas (G. b. beringei)
  2. Free-ranging mountain gorillas (G. b. beringei):
    Loss of habitat is one of the most severe threats to gorilla populations. The forests where mountain gorillas live are surrounded by rapidly increasing human settlement. Through shifting (slash-and-burn) agriculture, pastoral expansion, and logging, villages in forest zones cause fragmentation and degradation of habitat.
    The late 1960s saw the Virunga Conservation Area (VCA) of Rwanda’s national park reduced by more than half of its original size to support the cultivation of Pyrethrum. This led to a massive reduction in mountain gorilla population numbers by the mid-1970s. The resulting deforestation confines the gorillas to isolated deserts. Some groups may raid crops for food, creating further animosity and retaliation.
    We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years). However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years), followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years) that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years.
    The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years.
    Given that this also coincides with a notable decline in western lowland gorilla Ne, it may be that environmental changes during the Last Glacial Maximum (26,000 to 19,000 years ago), when dry savannah replaced tropical forest over much of the Congo basin (21), triggered a collapse in the western population and complete separation of the two species.
  3. In a year long study in Bwindi Impenetrable Forest adult males ate an average of 18.8 kg (41 lb) of food a day, while a females ate 14.9 kg (33 lb).
  4. Whilst they are inside we shut them in so that we can have access to the exterior cages to add fresh straw or do maintenance etc. We also give them their first feed or breakfast which we put on the roof of the cage “making” the gorillas work for their breakfast and spreading it out so that everyone gets a fair share. As wild gorillas naturally spend most of the day foraging we give the second feed as another scatter feed, which usually consists of nuts, a specially formulated pellet (which looks a bit like “Cheerios”) and small or chopped items of fruit. We would normally distribute this in the gardens to encourage them out into the open at 12 O’clock.
  5. In all cases, green plant materials and/or highfiber biscuits can be fed in relative excess, but other items should be limitfed. A minimum of about 20% of the diet should comprise nutritionally balanced primate diet(s), with possible substitutions/variety provided throughout the week in other food categories.

    A total of 37 zoos responded to food frequency questionnaires. The diet varied considerably from zoo to zoo, with over 115 distinctive food items fed regularly, occasionally, seasonally, or as a treat. Ten of the zoos (27%) offered between 11 and 15 different food items daily; 10 (27%) offered between 16 to 20 items daily; 3 zoos (8%) offered more than 20 different items daily. The remaining zoos offered 10 or less items daily. Overall, the zoos fed an average of three meals per day [ - but up to six, see the article A Day in The Life of The Gorilla Section at Port Lympne Reserve in blog.aspinallfoundation.org- ] , which was usually scattered in the exhibit.
    The majority of zoos (n=27, 73%) use commercially prepared diets in addition to produce, while 10 zoos (27%) prepared their own staple diet. Six zoos fed meat on a regular or occasional basis. Twenty different vegetables were fed on a regular basis. The majority of zoos fed carrots (79% of the zoos), sweet potatoes/yams (71%), green beans (38%), onions (29%), white potatoes (29%), corn on the cob (12.5%), and leeks (12.5%). Twenty-three different fruits were fed on a regular basis with the majority of zoos feeding apples (96%), bananas (89%), oranges (85%), grapes (48%), fruit juices (22%), raisins (19%), and tomatoes (11%). Twenty-five different types of greens/browse were fed, including celery (89%), lettuce (71%), spinach (54%), kale (46%), broccoli (43%), cabbage (25%), willow browse (21%), parsley (14%), escarole (14%), and cauliflower (14%).
    Eighteen different types of cereals/grains were fed, with a majority of zoos feeding bread (86%), sunflower seed (79%), peanuts (57%), mixed nuts (29%), popcorn (29%), and white rice (14%). Nineteen different commercial products were fed, with the primary staple comprising Mazuri Old World Primate (fed by 32% of the zoos), Purina (Lab Diet) High Protein (20%), Marion Leaf Eater Biscuit (20%), Spectrum Primate Pro-Plus (16%), HMS High Fiber Primate (16%), Mazuri Leaf Eater (12%), Zu/Preem Primate Dry (8%), and Purina Lab Diet (8%).

  6. Marmosets should be fed a marmoset diet. To prevent high amounts of easy digestible sugars, which can cause diarrhea and obesity, low amounts (< 10%) or no fruits should be fed, and moderate amounts of carrot, sweet potato and apple, should be offered, depending on the species. Feeding greens and green vegetables, which are more comparable to the natural diet, should be encouraged. Monkey biscuits, high-fiber pellets for primates, and the canned products should comprise 20% of the dry-matter intake of gorilla and orangutan diets; fruits and treat items should comprise ≤10%, depending of the species, and green vegetables and browse should be at least 40% of the diet. Gorillas and orangutans should get browse. Alfalfa hay can also be offered.
  7. Bwindi mountain gorillas spent on average 15% of feeding time consuming fruit, with monthly variation ranging from 0 to 70%.
    This study confirms that gorillas are frugivorous, and only the Virunga mountain gorilla population can be characterized as highly folivorous. Along with other frugivorous great apes, Bwindi mountain gorillas alter their activity patterns in response to varying amounts of fruit in their diet.
    In contrast to the less than 1% of foraging time spent on fruit in Virunga mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend approximately 30% of their foraging time consuming fruit, accounting for up to 70% of feeding time during peak fruit season well as within and between years, and within and between sites.

    Free-ranging gorillas consume a wide variety of plant species, with 50 to 300 species reported. However, they are very selective, choosing only certain parts of the vegetation at certain times of the year. As an example, only the base and tips of young leaves may be selected, although mature leaves are also eaten. Even captive gorillas are selective feeders, with particular species and plant parts preferred by individuals and groups. Gorillas generally select immature leaves over the mature ones, which usually contain less fiber, more protein, and less secondary components such as tannins. Shoots, flowers, and fruit are also preferred over mature leaves.
    The gorillas in Lope Reserve do not appear to select food based on any antinutritional properties (i.e., phenolic compounds), and consume a wide variety of fruit from highly proteinaceious unripe seeds to sugary fruit. They seem to avoid unripe and higher-fat fruit.

    Variation in fruit consumption was positively associated with variation in fruit production. The gorillas ate fig fruits frequently; fig intake is positively correlated with that of other fruits, and figs were not fallback foods. They relied heavily on bamboo shoots on a seasonal basis; however, no bamboo shoots were available for several years after a major flowering event. Our results support the argument that variation in gorilla diets mostly reflects variation in vegetational composition of their habitats.
    Despite the Bwindi gorillas having slightly lower availability of major food items, more fruit in their diets, and having longer daily travel distances than the Virunga gorillas, the energy intake rates for both populations were similar throughout the year. In Bwindi, when the gorillas were more frugivorous, their intake of protein declined and of carbohydrates was higher than that of Virunga gorillas.
    Mountain gorillas prioritize consumption of non-protein energy sources (fruit) when available, yet select foods from their habitat that are high in protein.
    When fruits are in season, western gorillas will spend more time foraging for fruits. Meanwhile, in the dry season, they will eat more leaves, stems, and other low-quality vegetable matter. Their preferred foods include fruits such as berries, bananas, and guavas. Over the course of a day, it’s not uncommon for a gorilla to consume 20 to 40 different types of foods.
    We conclude that gorillas exploit the broad frugivore niche in West African lowland forests, and are part of the frugivore community there. Gorilla diet at the Lope Reserve overlaps greatly with that of sympatric, frugivorous, primates, and resembles more closely that of chimpanzees than it does gorilla diet studied elsewhere in Africa
  8. Causes:


    Up to 12 000 informal miners, known as garimpeiros, still operate in this Caribbean country. Between five and ten tons of gold are smuggled outside the territory each year despite the pressure from French authorities.

    light and sparse deforestation - less than 11% of deforested area between the faunal sampling site and 30 km upstream from this site - generates a significant decline in biodiversity in fish (-25% of species) and mammals ( -41% of species). This decline is not random because it preferentially affects detritivorous and herbivorous fish, as well as large predatory mammals.
    This drastic impact of a low rate of deforestation on both aquatic and terrestrial animals is associated with the deforestation caused by gold mining. Indeed, this activity is known to alter the quality of waterways by massively dumping fine particles and pollutants into the water.

    And consequences:

    A serologic survey for Mayaro virus (Alphavirus, Togaviridae) in 28 wild nonflying forest mammal species in French Guiana showed a prevalence ranging from 0% to 52% and increasing with age. Species active during the day and those who spent time in trees were significantly more infected, results consistent with transmission implicating diurnal mosquitoes and continuous infectious pressure.
    Mayaro Virus in Wild Mammals, French Guyana
  9. The world’s remaining wild apes are being increasingly forced into isolated pockets of forest, which impedes their ability to forage, breed and to hide from hunters. There is also a growing body of evidence linking deforestation and subsequent changes in climate to the spread of Ebola and other infectuous diseaes…
    At this moment in time Ebola is the single greatest threat to the survival of gorillas and chimpanzees. The virus is even more deadly for other great apes as it is for humans, with mortality rates approximately 95% for gorillas and 77% for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Current estimates suggest a third of the world’s gorillas and chimpanzees have died from Ebola since the 1990s. As with humans, these deaths tend to come in epidemics. In 1995, an outbreak is reported to have killed more than 90% of the gorillas in Minkébé Park in northern Gabon. In 2002-2003 a single outbreak of ZEBOV (the Zaire strain of Ebola) in the Democratic Republic of Congo killed an estimated 5,000 Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). It’s hard to accurately count such elusive creatures but the WWF estimates there are up to 100,000 left in the wild – so a single Ebola outbreak wiped out a considerable chunk of the world’s gorilla population.
  10. The coupling between EVD outbreaks and forest loss in the margins of the rainforest biome within the previous two years, highlighted in our study, has profound implications. A plausible explanation is that contact between humans and infected wildlife increases dramatically after the removal of forest. Such an effect has been previously suggested, and while our results strongly support such an interpretation, they also indicate that the changes are not sustained beyond two years. A variety of ecological descriptors (e.g. species richness) are affected soon after forest fragmentation, and the factors promoting the emergence of the Ebola virus (host range, reservoir species, circulation in nature) are still unknown.

    Forest loss disrupts animal movements and local densities, and thus influences their interactions and the potential for a pathogen to be transmitted between individuals and across species —though for Ebola such mechanisms remain theoretical. Regardless of whether or not fruit bats are important reservoirs of Ebola virus, these animals are evidently involved in the virus’ ecology. Deforestation influences fruit bat movement and abundance, and the composition, abundance and behaviors of the wider mammal fauna is influenced by timber cutting and disturbance.

    Thus, forest loss and fragmentation could favor the combination of ecological events that are required for viral emergence. Interestingly, our results, which are not limited to tall intact old growth forests, highlight the association between EVD outbreaks and close-canopy forests.

  11. The resultant life tables are truncated at age 55, the oldest age estimate reported for an individual from any of the five sites. Although some sites show temporal heterogeneity in mortality, we have chosen to include all time periods and all deaths reported at each site. The data include viral epidemics (polio and respiratory epidemics at Gombe, Ebola and Taï, influenza and an ‘‘Aids-like’’ epidemic at Mahale), deaths from poaching, warfare, infanticide, cannibalism and predation.

    Infant mortality is about 20% in the first year, dropping to a minimum of about 3·5% between ages 10–15. At age 15 the life expectancy is about another 15 years. By age 30 the annual mortality rate is about 8·5% and life expectancy an additional eight years.

    Only 27% of all males born, but 41% of all females born are expected to survive to age 15

  12. Life expectancy at birth (e0) for both sexes combined was 32.8 years. It was higher for females (35.8) than for males (29.6); this sex difference remained throughout life. Life expectancy at birth for Ngogo chimpanzees falls within the range of human hunter-gatherers and is similar to values for the Hadza, for whom life expectancy at birth is 35.5 for females and 30.8 for males. At 5 years of age, by which time Ngogo infants are typically weaned, future life expectancy was 36.5 years for the combined sample, 41.9 years for females, and 31 years for males.
    These increases relative to life expectancy at birth are due to the concentration of early mortality in year 1. Values for females declined steadily thereafter, with no steep drop at any age.
  13. Muller and Wrangham argued that variation in pathogen exposure and in types and extent of anthropogenic disturbance largely explained inter-site variation in chimpanzee mortality and that the highest mortality rates (at Taï and Mahale) in the four-site sample reflected recent catastrophic human impacts. Ngogo data, which were not then available, are consistent with this argument. Exposure to pathogens carried by humans is relatively low at Ngogo and is probably lower than at Kanyawara, where the chimpanzees often raid crops (Wilson et al., 2014). Also, the Ngogo study area has suffered relatively little recent human disturbance. In fact, considerable forest regeneration in former anthropogenic grasslands has occurred in the Ngogo chimpanzee community territory since we began our study.

  14. For top-chain animals, captivity does have an obvious toll on their health despite their higher lifespan. This is due to medicine, otherwise they would die far younger from all kinds of ailment than their native counterparts. Just we live today longer on than primitive hunter-gatherers, despite their higher constitutive health.

    The most common causes of mortality were: cardiomyopathy (40% of all mortalities); stillbirth/abortion; acute myocardial necrosis; chimpanzee-induced trauma; amyloidosis; and pneumonia. Five morphologic diagnoses accounted for 61% of mortalities: cardiomyopathy; hemorrhage; acute myocardial necrosis; amyloidosis; and pneumonia. The most common etiologies were degenerative, undetermined, bacterial, traumatic, and neoplastic.
    The cardiovascular system was most frequently involved, followed by the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and multi-systemic diseases.

  15. The body of male WB, who died at the age of 26 in 2014, was found; he had been suffering from a respiratory infection that was the presumed cause of death. A few individuals who died around the same time also had respiratory infections, and some of those (e.g., male BE, 36 years old) looked weak and emaciated when last seen. Other chimpanzees were noticeably ill when last seen, and we assume that disease and/or the general effects of senescence are common sources of mortality. Male GZ apparently died from a fall e his body was found at the base of a tree e and D. Watts and J. Mitani saw an infant fall to its death as its mother fled from a male who was charging in the top of the canopy. Three females have been seen carrying dead infants presumed to have died of disease, but ob- servers were unable to recover the bodies. Five infants (three of them first-born and two second-born to their respective mothers) have been victims of within-community infanticides, and one was a suspected victim of between-community infanticide.

  16. Between-group aggression is likely to be a major source of mortality. Male chimpanzees from Ngogo have killed many individuals in neighboring communities, but several chimpanzees in the Ngogo community also have been victims of intercommunity aggression. Observers found the bodies of three Ngogo males (estimated ages 18, 23, and 32 years) who had been lethally attacked by neighbors, and we suspect that seven or more adolescent and adult males, who often ranged in peripheral parts of the Ngogo territory, like- wise were victims of such attacks. A 22 year-old male was a victim of lethal within-community coalitionary aggression. In 2004, female DAN suffered serious wounds most likely inflicted by males from a neighboring community during a pre- sumed attempted infanticide. Her 1-year old infant looked only slightly wounded, but DAN and the infant disappeared shortly after the attack.

  17. This analysis aims at determining to what extent spontaneous alcohol drinking in adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) analysis aims at determining to what extent spontaneous alcohol drinking in adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) represents ethanol-directed behaviour.
    It is shown that in a condition of free access to an ethanol/water solution (2 percent v/v) and drinking water, alcohol drinking was initiated in all subjects (n = 4) within a few days, without any specific induction procedure.
    When ethanol concentrations in the solutions increased, consumption of ethanol solutions decreased, of drinking water increased, and of total water decreased. Net ethanol intake from a certain solution was influenced by its concentration and the concentration of the concurrently available solution. After an initial increase, total net ethanol intake remained relatively constant. Consumed amounts of ethanol (on the average 2-6 ml.kg- ~ per day) could lead to notable blood ethanol levels.
    The observed alcohol drinking is interpreted as resulting from a central reinforcement of ethanol intake and avoidance of negative, potentially harmful effects of ethanol.

    Ages between 7 and 9 years, and each housed in a separate cage in the same room
    Diet consisted of regular monkey pellets (over 200 g) provided at 0910 hours in the morning, supplemented with fruit at 1340 hours and a slice of bread at 1540 hours. The room was temperature.

    1989, Analysis of spontaneous alcohol drinking in rhesus monkeys
  18. Effects of red wine on accelerated gastric emptying following Nissen fundoplication
    The appetizing effect of an apéritif in overweight and normal-weight humans
    Why Alcohol Makes You Poop (And How to Avoid a Bathroom-Filled Morning After) ↩︎

  19. The Waxwings metabolized alcohol (with the 1 g/kg dose) 3.3 times as fast as the Starlings and 7.2 times as fast as the Greenfinches, while the Starlings metabolized it 2.2 times as fast as the Greenfinches. The rate of alcohol metabolism was approximately 40 mg/kg/h faster after the larger dose than after the smaller dose in all three species . The difference was significant in the Starlings (P<0 .001) and the Greenfinches (P<0.01) but not with the Waxwings because of their larger variation.

    ADH activities and isoenzymes:
    The ADH activity of Waxwing liver, measured as mpmol/min/mg protein was on the average 15 times as high as that of Starlings and 6.2 times as high as that of Greenfinches (Table 3) . In Waxwings the liver constitutes 4.9 % of the total body weight ; in both Starlings and Greenfinches only 2.8 %. The whole liver ADH activity of Waxwings is 23 times as high as that of Starlings and Greenfinches.